Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/exhibitions/1159161457/

Botanical Expressions

At the turn of the 20th century, the intersection of botanical study with design practice stimulated an array of plant forms and motifs in furnishings, glassware, ceramics, textiles, and more. Botanical Expressions reveals how designers, inspired by nature and informed by scientific knowledge, created vibrant new designs in America, Britain, France, and the Netherlands. Blossoming vases, plantlike stuctures, fanciful garden illustrations, and a diversity of vegetal and floral patterns reveal how nature and design dynamically merged. An increasing number of designers, trained as botanists, advocated for the beauty and order of nature’s systems, colors, and patterns. Many manufacturers operated in proximity to gardens for natural study and stocked books of botanical illustrations as resources for their designers. These primary sources, on loan from Smithsonian Libraries, appear alongside the objects they influenced. Since the 19th century, the garden was often seen as a refuge from industry and a natural source of plenty and pleasure. This history of botanical expressions in design illuminates a reflection on the critical role of nature within our world.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18340047/

  • Manufactured by Arthur Sanderson
  • block-printed paper
  • Gift of Cowtan & Tout, Inc.
  • floral
  • foliage
  • delicate
  • Arts and Crafts

May Morris learned to embroider from her mother and aunt before enrolling at the National Art Training School in London in 1881. Her studies included life drawing with and botanical sketches in the wild, a design practice she continued throughout her life. Such careful observations helped her to capture what she describes as “the garden tangle” of honeysuckle in this design.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18343643/

  • Designed by May Morris
  • block-printed paper
  • Gift of Annie May Hegeman
  • floral
  • sidewall
  • foliage
  • blue
  • Arts and Crafts

Although May Morris’s wallpapers were generally well received, she dedicated her efforts entirely to embroidery after completing this last wallpaper design. The name Arcadia refers to an imagined pastoral ideal in which humans live in harmony with nature, seen here through the balanced composition of hawthorn leaves overlain with flowers.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18383199/

  • Designed by Emile Gallé
  • Manufactured by Etablissement Gallé
  • etched overlay glass
  • Gift of Harry Harkness Flagler
  • decoration
  • display
  • flowers
  • vases
  • glass
  • art nouveau
  • etching

Gallé’s experiments with color mixing for his glass batches involved a process of scientific exploration. The designer’s colors and textures sought to emulate the qualities of precious and hard stones, among other natural effects. At its height, Gallé’s glass workshop employed 300 workers whose skills made the sophistication of the designs possible

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18383461/

  • Designed by Walter Crane
  • Manufactured by Jeffrey & Company
  • block-printed paper, embossed
  • Gift of James J. Rorimer
  • green
  • foliage
  • acanthus
  • Arts and Crafts
  • peacock

Walter Crane looked to nature as a model to explain how appearance and structure can form an organic and inseparable unit. Here, peacocks, tulips, and acanthus leaves combine in lively arabesques, identified in 1890 by one journalist as resembling “Japanese motives” as well as displaying the “vigor” of gothic design.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18386433/

  • Designed by John Henry Dearle
  • Manufactured by Morris & Company, Decorators Ltd.
  • cotton

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18402905/

  • Designed by Albert Warner
  • Manufactured by Jeffrey & Company
  • block-printed and stenciled paper
  • Gift of Roger Warner
  • trees
  • symmetry
  • roses
  • thorns
  • heart

A leading producer of artistic wallpapers, Jeffrey & Company commissioned designs from Walter Crane. In 1872, the company introduced the horizontal division of the wall into three sections: a frieze (such as this design) at the top, a filling below, and a dado that ran from skirting level almost to the floor. This block-printed example, created by Albert Warner, son of the company’s founder, shows stylized rose bushes overlapping an inverted heart.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18410727/

  • Manufactured by Tiffany and Co.
  • favrile glass
  • Museum purchase through gift of Georgiana L. McClellan
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • dining
  • organic
  • stemmed
  • flared
  • iridescent

The form of this Favrile glass vase suggests a flower with flared bloom and narrow stem. Tiffany coined the word “favrile” from the Latin fabrilis (relating to a craftsman), to imply handwork for his mold-made glass. His experiments with minerals resulted in an iridescence suggesting the surface of excavated ancient Roman glass.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411425/

  • Manufactured by Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory
  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411429/

  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411431/

  • Manufactured by Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory
  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • botanical
  • floral

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411435/

  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411437/

  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411439/

  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411441/

  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411443/

  • Manufactured by Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory
  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411445/

  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411447/

  • Manufactured by Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory
  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18411449/

  • Manufactured by Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory
  • soft-paste porcelain, overglaze enamels
  • Gift of Irwin Untermyer
  • interior
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • butterflies
  • dining
  • floral
  • organic

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18451307/

  • Designed by William Morris
  • Manufactured by Morris & Co.
  • cotton warp, silk wefts
  • Gift of Mrs. James M. Breed
  • pattern
  • flowers
  • roses
  • tulips
  • Arts and Crafts
  • textiles

At a time when it was fashionable to plant rare, exotic species, Morris believed that native and naturalized British plants, trees, and flowers, such as roses and tulips, were enough to create a beautiful composition. Both his garden and textile designs drew inspiration from medieval and Tudor-style patterning and motifs. In Tulip and Rose, the flowers’ pattern of growth appears as organic strapwork.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18454045/

  • Manufactured by Tiffany and Co.
  • glass
  • display
  • vines
  • glass
  • art nouveau
  • vase
  • Favrile

Tiffany and his staff sometimes used photographic studies in the design process to render the movement of plants and flowers realistically. Here the trailing movement of the vine has been studied carefully as it falls across the glass.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18454089/

  • Manufactured by Tiffany and Co.
  • favrile glass
  • Bequest of Joseph L. Morris
  • decoration
  • container
  • flowers
  • upper class
  • organic
  • abstraction
  • vases
  • luxury
  • ridges
  • glass
  • color gradation
  • form

Tiffany invented the term “favrile,” from the Latin fabrilis (handmade) to describe all of the blown glass produced by his firm. Nature was Tiffany’s primary inspiration, as shown beautifully in these three floraform vases. The designer cultivated a variety of flowers and plants in his gardens at Laurelton Hall and used them for study and inspiration.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18454091/

  • Manufactured by Tiffany and Co.
  • favrile glass
  • flowers
  • candles
  • Favrile
  • blue-green

In addition to his work in glass and ceramics, Louis C. Tiffany was a landscape designer and gardener who studied plant life extensively in all its seasonal variety and stages of evolution. Tiffany was outspoken on the richness of nature as a design resource. His philosophy was, “Nature is always right—that is a saying we often hear from the past; and here is another: Nature is always beautiful.” Tiffany owned botanical design texts such as Owen Jones’s Grammar of Ornament and Eugene Grasset’s La Plante et ses Applications Ornementales (both of which are on view nearby) that guided him in his design philosophy.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18454109/

  • mold-blown favrile glass
  • Bequest of Joseph L. Morris
  • floral
  • organic
  • iridescent
  • shiny
  • vessel

At his Corona, New York factory, Tiffany encouraged continuous experimentation in glass color and surface effects. On the top shelf is an example of agateware [1979-84-1] in which a colorful mix of opaque glass simulates the laminated pattern and ridged texture of stone. A wide-mouthed vessel [1966-55-29] shows flame-like decoration and a goblet and vase [1966-55-9-a and 1977-83-1] are covered with plant-like patterning.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18464395/

  • painted maple
  • Gift of George J. Fino
  • design
  • furniture
  • organic
  • seating
  • concentric
  • wood
  • natural color
  • bent
  • natural

The rustic furniture trade grew in the Catskill mountains because of access to an abundance of suitable natural materials. The work required only basic tools—saws, clippers, penknives, hammers, and measures. The dramatically curved profile of this chair shows the sophistication and skill of its maker while revealing the natural qualities of the wood.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18470945/

  • Manufactured by Daum
  • glass
  • Museum purchase through gift of Jacob Schiff
  • landscape
  • winter
  • glass
  • vase
  • immersion

In 1891, Daum Frères, a prominent glassworks in Nancy, France, operated by brothers Auguste and Antonin Daum, opened a decoration studio to augment their fine glassware. Daum’s chief decorator of 30 years, artist Henri Bergé (French, 1870-1937), made hundreds of watercolor studies from plants in Nancy’s botanical gardens for use by designers at the factory as well as in his teaching. In 1897, a formal drawing school was established at the factory with courses taught by Bergé and fellow designer Jacques Gruber

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18488023/

  • silk on linen
  • Gift of Mrs. Curtice Hitchcock
  • symmetry
  • silk
  • navy
  • Arts and Crafts
  • soft
  • embroidered

In her book Decorative Needlework, May Morris recommended several key qualities to distill from nature into embroidery designs. These included contrast, varied repetition, symmetry, and radial balance, all displayed in this cushion design. She writes, “When the design that is being worked is, as is usual, some treatment of flowers and other natural growths, the stitches also radiate outward from a common centre.” Utilizing Morris’s preferred chain stitch throughout, the floral shapes are flattened appropriately to suit their medium

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18488129/

  • favrile glass
  • Gift of Stanley Siegel, from the Stanley Siegel Collection
  • floral
  • sprouting
  • nature
  • bulbous
  • golden
  • iride

Tiffany invented the term “favrile,” from the Latin fabrilis (handmade) to describe all of the blown glass produced by his firm. Nature was Tiffany’s primary inspiration, as shown beautifully in these three floraform vases. The designer cultivated a variety of flowers and plants in his gardens at Laurelton Hall and used them for study and inspiration.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18496587/

  • Designed by William Morris
  • Manufactured by Jeffrey & Company
  • block-printed paper
  • Gift of Mr. Bruce Bechdel
  • floral
  • chrysanthemums
  • foliage
  • neutral colors
  • Arts and Crafts

In 1871, Morris acquired a joint tenancy lease at Kelmscott Manor, the family’s country home in southern England. Rambles through the surrounding area sparked a profusion of floral designs, including that shown here. This period also marked the beginning of Morris’s interest in natural dyes. The designer pursued the use of plant matter to make dyes more visually harmonious and less toxic than the aniline dyes common to the market in the latter half of the 19th century

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18497395/

  • Manufactured by Tiffany and Co.
  • silver
  • Gift of Mrs. Roswell Miller
  • floral
  • upper class
  • coffee/tea drinking
  • silver
  • tray

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18497615/

  • Designed by Paulding Farnham
  • gold, enamel, diamonds
  • Gift of Isabel Shults
  • gold
  • enamel
  • personal adornment
  • time
  • flower
  • diamond
  • watch

In 1889, designer Paulding Farnham’s enameled and bejeweled orchids for Tiffany & Co. created a sensation at the Paris Exposition Universelle. The choice of orchids coincided with these flowers being sought for the gardens of the wealthy, who were also the jewelry firm’s patrons. Designers consulted botanical texts at the studio and made watercolor sketches to devise life-like enameling schemes. The book Orchids and How to Grow Them in India and Other Tropical Climates, found in the studio’s library, likely served as a reference for the design of this jewelry

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18497617/

  • gold, enamel, diamonds
  • Gift of Isabel Shults
  • flowers
  • enamel
  • personal adornment
  • diamonds
  • jewelry
  • brooch

In 1889, designer Paulding Farnham’s enameled and bejeweled orchids for Tiffany & Co. created a sensation at the Paris Exposition Universelle. The choice of orchids coincided with these flowers being sought for the gardens of the wealthy, who were also the jewelry firm’s patrons. Designers consulted botanical texts at the studio and made watercolor sketches to devise life-like enameling schemes. The book Orchids and How to Grow Them in India and Other Tropical Climates, found in the studio’s library, likely served as a reference for the design of this jewelry

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18497619/

  • gold, enamel, diamond
  • Gift of Isabel Shults
  • personal adornment
  • luxury
  • brooch
  • flower
  • purple
  • diamond

In 1889, designer Paulding Farnham’s enameled and bejeweled orchids for Tiffany & Co. created a sensation at the Paris Exposition Universelle. The choice of orchids coincided with these flowers being sought for the gardens of the wealthy, who were also the jewelry firm’s patrons. Designers consulted botanical texts at the studio and made watercolor sketches to devise life-like enameling schemes. The book Orchids and How to Grow Them in India and Other Tropical Climates, found in the studio’s library, likely served as a reference for the design of this jewelry

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18497621/

  • cast gold, fired enamel, cut diamonds
  • Gift of Isabel Shults
  • flowers
  • women's fashion accessories
  • personal adornment
  • luxury
  • accessories
  • petals
  • pansies
  • biomorphic

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18498225/

  • Designed by Emile Gallé
  • Manufactured by Etablissement Gallé
  • pearwood, various woods (marquetry), upholstery (replaced)
  • Gift of Mrs. Jefferson Patterson
  • carved
  • wood
  • art nouveau
  • marquetry
  • golden

This side chair and the folding desk nearby are examples of French art nouveau furniture sold to American shoppers at Chicago’s department store Marshall Field & Co. Gallé opened a small woodworking shop in 1884–85 where these pieces were created. The designer was attracted to the variety, figure, grain, color, and transparency of different woods, whose diversity he featured in his marquetry work

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18564443/

  • graphite, brush and tempera on oiled translucent paper
  • study
  • floral
  • tile

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18564449/

  • graphite on oiled translucent paper
  • study
  • pattern
  • floral
  • repetition
  • sketch
  • tile

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18564451/

  • graphite on oiled translucent paper
  • study
  • pattern
  • floral
  • graphite
  • tile

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18564453/

  • graphite on oiled translucent paper
  • study
  • pattern
  • floral
  • grid
  • tile

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18564459/

  • Designed by William Morris
  • Manufactured by Jeffrey & Company
  • block-printed paper
  • flowers
  • sidewall
  • birds
  • trellis
  • outdoors
  • garden
  • Arts and Crafts
  • collaboration
  • gardener

Morris held a fondness for birds, to the dismay of his gardener. Attempts at growing strawberries and blackberries were hindered by Morris’s declaration that the birds must be protected over the fruit. This pattern depicts Morris’s own view of the garden at Red House, where he watched birds dart through the rose trellises. Philip Webb, Morris’s collaborator on the design for the garden at Red House, drew the birds in this piece.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18572193/

  • Designed by William Morris
  • cotton, mercerized cotton
  • Gift of Annie May Hegeman
  • flowers
  • embroidery
  • Arts and Crafts
  • growth
  • soft

Advances in transportation, botany, and technology allowed florists of the late 19th century to create elaborate new hybrid and hothouse cultivars. The single row of petals on Morris’s wild roses stands in contrast to these showy blooms and reflects his interest in valorizing indigenous plants. Morris drew connections between what he dismissivelycalled “florists’ flowers” and what he perceived as a cultural shift toward increased homogeneity, artifice, and industrialization in society at large.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18620859/

  • Designed by Christopher Dresser
  • Manufactured by Linthorpe Pottery, Yorkshire
  • glazed earthenware, overglaze lustre
  • Gift of David Schafer
  • irises
  • ovoid
  • elongated
  • earthenware
  • water lillies
  • collar neck

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18620861/

  • Designed by Christopher Dresser
  • Manufactured by Linthorpe Pottery, Yorkshire
  • glazed earthenware, overglaze lustre
  • Gift of David Schafer
  • irises
  • ovoid
  • elongated
  • earthenware
  • collar neck

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18634351/

  • Designed by Christopher Dresser
  • Manufactured by Benham & Froud, Ltd.
  • copper, brass, ebony (kettle), wrought iron (stand)
  • interior
  • container
  • domestic
  • home
  • display
  • dining
  • drinking
  • tendrils
  • curving line
  • globular
  • reflective
  • hosts

For much of his career as an industrial designer, Christopher Dresser believed that symmetry was the perfect expression of natural order. Visits to Japan led to a new appreciation of asymmetry. Below this copper kettle, intertwined vine-like forms curl around the stand. This spontaneous line breaks from the rigidity of Dresser’s earlier style, as seen in the toast rack nearby.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18638385/

  • Manufactured by Arnhem Faience Factory
  • earthenware, enameled decoration
  • Gift of Justin G. Schiller
  • floral
  • vases
  • delicate
  • pair
  • tall

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18638417/

  • Manufactured by Arnhem Faience Factory
  • earthenware, enameled decoration
  • Gift of Justin G. Schiller
  • floral
  • delicate
  • art nouveau
  • tall
  • symmetrical

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18646873/

  • Designed by Richard Redgrave
  • Manufactured by J.F. Christy
  • enameled and gilt glass
  • Museum purchase from Decorative Arts Association Acquisitions Fund in memory of Dona Guimaraes
  • water
  • flowers
  • grass
  • transparent
  • serving utensil
  • growth

Artist Richard Redgrave was the headmaster of the Government School of Design in London where he trained designers for industry and taught “art botany” to Christopher Dresser. Redgrave designed this carafe for Felix Summerly’s Art Manufactures, a company run by Henry Cole, who would work with Paxton on the Great Exhibition a few years later. The decoration follows the principles of design reform and thus reflects the functionality of the object—the painted plants seem to emerge from a spring when the carafe is filled with water.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18647581/

  • Manufactured by Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory
  • porcelain, vitreous enamel
  • Gift of Arthur Altschul
  • decoration
  • floral
  • octagonal
  • purple
  • plate

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18647583/

  • Manufactured by Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory
  • porcelain, vitreous enamel
  • Gift of Arthur Altschul
  • decoration
  • display
  • floral
  • carnations
  • vase

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18647585/

  • Manufactured by Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory
  • porcelain, vitreous enamel
  • Gift of Arthur Altschul
  • display
  • botanical
  • symmetry
  • vases
  • decorative
  • curvilinear
  • vase

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18647587/

  • Manufactured by Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory
  • porcelain, vitreous enamel
  • Gift of Arthur Altschul
  • display
  • botanical
  • vases
  • decorative
  • curvilinear
  • yellow

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18647589/

  • Manufactured by Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory
  • porcelain, vitreous enamel
  • Gift of Arthur Altschul
  • display
  • vases
  • decorative
  • stem
  • bird

The decoration on Rozenburg porcelain was designed by a few master painters including Samuel Schellink, who is responsible for most objects in this case. His designs were applied in pencil and then other painters would complete the decoration. In 1900, there were 60 painters and 10 apprentices working at Rozenburg.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18647591/

  • Manufactured by Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory
  • porcelain, vitreous enamel
  • Gift of Arthur Altschul
  • botanical
  • vases
  • decorative
  • accessories
  • art nouveau
  • naturalism

The decoration on Rozenburg porcelain was designed by a few master painters including Samuel Schellink, who is responsible for most objects in this case. His designs were applied in pencil and then other painters would complete the decoration. In 1900, there were 60 painters and 10 apprentices working at Rozenburg

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18648439/

  • Designed by Walter Crane
  • linen warp, silk weft
  • Museum purchase from General Acquisitions Endowment Fund and through gift of Mrs. Edward Stern
  • floral
  • muses

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18648441/

  • Designed by Walter Crane
  • linen warp, silk weft
  • Museum purchase from General Acquisitions Endowment Fund and through gift of Mrs. Edward Stern
  • floral
  • muses
  • pink

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18648443/

  • Designed by Walter Crane
  • warp: linen; weft: silk
  • Museum purchase from General Acquisitions Endowment Fund and through gift of Mrs. Edward Stern
  • floral
  • muses

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18653647/

  • Designed by Emile Gallé
  • Manufactured by Gallé
  • glass
  • Gift of the Estate of Max Kobre
  • decoration
  • display
  • flowers
  • vases
  • glass
  • art nouveau
  • etching

In 1891, Daum Frères, a prominent glassworks in Nancy, France, operated by brothers Auguste and Antonin Daum, opened a decoration studio to augment their fine glassware. Daum’s chief decorator of 30 years, artist Henri Bergé (French, 1870-1937), made hundreds of watercolor studies from plants in Nancy’s botanical gardens for use by designers at the factory as well as in his teaching. In 1897, a formal drawing school was established at the factory with courses taught by Bergé and fellow designer Jacques Gruber.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18653651/

  • Designed by Emile Gallé
  • Manufactured by Gallé
  • glass
  • Gift of the Estate of Max Kobre
  • decoration
  • display
  • flowers
  • glass
  • art nouveau
  • vase
  • etching

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18653659/

  • Designed by Emile Gallé
  • Manufactured by Gallé
  • blown, cased, acid etched glass
  • Gift of the Estate of Max Kobre
  • decoration
  • display
  • flowers
  • vases
  • glass
  • art nouveau
  • etching

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18653665/

  • Manufactured by Daum
  • glass
  • Gift of the Estate of Max Kobre
  • decoration
  • foliage
  • glass
  • translucent
  • brown

Gallé’s experiments with color mixing for his glass batches involved a process of scientific exploration. The designer’s colors and textures sought to emulate the qualities of precious and hard stones, among other natural effects. At its height, Gallé’s glass workshop employed 300 workers whose skills made the sophistication of the designs possible

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18653687/

  • Manufactured by Daum
  • glass
  • Gift of the Estate of Max Kobre
  • foliage
  • nature
  • glass
  • vase

During the 1880s and 1890s, Gallé developed original techniques for creating and decorating glass vessels, including marqueterie-sur-verre, a technique inspired by inlaid decoration, or marquetry, in wood. Gallé pressed shaped pieces of hot glass into the pliable body of an object as it was being made; once the flat surface had cooled, it could be engraved, carved, or embellished with additional applications of glass. This range of techniques allowed Gallé to translate biological life into design and show a variety of flora and fauna in detail as they transformed throughout the seasons.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18653693/

  • Manufactured by Daum
  • glass
  • Gift of the Estate of Max Kobre
  • floral
  • glass
  • vase
  • gradient

During the 1880s and 1890s, Gallé developed original techniques for creating and decorating glass vessels, including marqueterie-sur-verre, a technique inspired by inlaid decoration, or marquetry, in wood. Gallé pressed shaped pieces of hot glass into the pliable body of an object as it was being made; once the flat surface had cooled, it could be engraved, carved, or embellished with additional applications of glass. This range of techniques allowed Gallé to translate biological life into design and show a variety of flora and fauna in detail as they transformed throughout the seasons.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18653695/

  • Manufactured by Daum
  • glass
  • Gift of the Estate of Max Kobre
  • butterflies
  • vases
  • glass
  • vase
  • translucent

Daum produced layered glass similar to that of Emile Gallé’s, and gradually perfected several original and difficult techniques, such as using colored glass powder, wheel cutting, martelage (producing a hammered texture), mold-blowing, and acid etching. These techniques resulted in stunning decorative effects when combined on a single piece of glass.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18667891/

  • Designed by Charles Francis Annesley Voysey
  • block-printed paper
  • Gift of Dr. Francis J. Geck
  • interior
  • wallcovering
  • floral
  • organic
  • sidewall
  • tulips
  • intricate
  • art nouveau
  • acanthus
  • violets
  • swirls

Charles Francis Annesley Voysey’s wallpaper and textile designs were known references for painters working at the Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory in the Netherlands, whose designs can be seen in the case nearby. Voysey adapted nature into flat designs that appealed to biological and botanical interests of the era. Here, tulips and acanthus leaves are interlaced in a dynamic composition

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18676559/

  • Designed by Alphonse Maria Mucha
  • brush and watercolor, graphite on cream wove paper
  • floral
  • organic
  • art nouveau
  • print
  • watercolor

When writing to his wife in 1910 about his ideal family home in Bohemia, Alphonse Maria Mucha made his desires for living near nature clear: “You know my conditions . . . woods nearby, the town nearby, a garden as big as possible—so that I can build a studio there.” Mucha prioritized access to natural resources in order to attain a good quality of life and work. His textile designs celebrate the spontaneous freeform curves of flowers and plants.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18699491/

  • Designed by Alphonse Maria Mucha
  • cotton
  • Museum purchase from General Acquisitions Endowment Fund
  • floral
  • organic
  • art nouveau
  • print
  • watercolor

When writing to his wife in 1910 about his ideal family home in Bohemia, Alphonse Maria Mucha made his desires for living near nature clear: “You know my conditions . . . woods nearby, the town nearby, a garden as big as possible—so that I can build a studio there.” Mucha prioritized access to natural resources in order to attain a good quality of life and work. His textile designs celebrate the spontaneous freeform curves of flowers and plants.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18731639/

  • Designed by Harry Powell
  • Manufactured by James Powell & Sons
  • glass
  • Gift of Paul F. Walter
  • decoration
  • domestic
  • home
  • flowers
  • organic
  • iridescent
  • tapered

Harry Powell’s designs from the 1880s and 1890s are characterized by wavy rims and subtle tints resulting from careful color experiments. Here botanical elements both decorate the piece and determine the shape of the final design.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18731641/

  • Designed by Harry Powell
  • Manufactured by James Powell & Sons
  • glass
  • Gift of Paul F. Walter
  • organic
  • flared
  • glass

Harry Powell’s designs from the 1880s and 1890s are characterized by wavy rims and subtle tints resulting from careful color experiments. Here botanical elements both decorate the piece and determine the shape of the final design

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18796201/

  • Designed by Christopher Dresser
  • Manufactured by James Couper & Sons
  • mold-blown glass
  • Museum purchase from General Acquisitions Endowment Fund
  • interior
  • decoration
  • container
  • rhythm
  • ridges
  • elegant
  • vortex
  • vase

Dresser’s only works in glass were manufactured by Glasgow-based company James Couper and Sons and sold under the trade name Clutha, meaning “cloudy” in Gaelic. This line of art glass shows great experimentation with form and colors in earth tones. Dresser approached glass blowing as a science and achieved multicolor, or “solifleur” effects by adding colored particles into the glass while it was hot.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18797513/

  • Manufactured by Tiffany and Co.
  • silver, ivory
  • floral
  • upper class
  • coffee/tea drinking
  • silver
  • ivory

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18801225/

  • Manufactured by Tiffany and Co.
  • favrile glass
  • Gift of Thomas Carnase
  • display
  • vases
  • vines
  • glass
  • art nouveau
  • Favrile

In addition to his work in glass and ceramics, Louis C. Tiffany was a landscape designer and gardener who studied plant life extensively in all its seasonal variety and stages of evolution. Tiffany was outspoken on the richness of nature as a design resource. His philosophy was, “Nature is always right—that is a saying we often hear from the past; and here is another: Nature is always beautiful.” Tiffany owned botanical design texts such as Owen Jones’s Grammar of Ornament and Eugene Grasset’s La Plante et ses Applications Ornementales (both of which are on view nearby) that guided him in his design philosophy.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18804417/

  • Designed by Christopher Dresser
  • Manufactured by Hukin & Heath
  • silver-plated metal
  • Gift of Miles Lourie
  • food preparation
  • kitchen
  • dining
  • order
  • storage
  • tableware
  • silver
  • curved
  • line
  • eating
  • metalwork
  • ball joints
  • rods

Dresser believed in an underlying order, unity, and symmetry derived from nature, and the stems and rivets of this toast rack are remarkably similar to his studies on branch growth, as seen in the facsimile drawing nearby. This is one of many silver and electroplated wares Dresser designed for Birmingham silversmiths Hukin & Heath. Dresser’s functional objects reveal not only his scientific background, but also his concern with limiting ornamentation to make objects affordable and suitable for serial production

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18804489/

  • Designed by Emile Gallé
  • Manufactured by Etablissement Gallé
  • walnut, various wood inlays
  • Museum purchase from General Acquisition Endowment
  • foliage
  • decorative
  • carved
  • art nouveau
  • marquetry
  • tray

The Furniture Journal of October 10, 1904 reported that, with respect to his work in wood, Gallé believed in copying trees, leaves, and flowers in detail. The article states, “In the course of a morning walk he may be struck by the branch of a tree, or a chance grace in a blossom. The design follows at once, and in the woods which appear in some of the decorative panels by this great French master.” Gallé featured the visual qualities of many different woods through his work with inlay

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805023/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor
  • graphic design
  • gardens
  • fountains
  • women
  • snow
  • art nouveau
  • graphic designers
  • calendars
  • January

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805025/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805027/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805029/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805031/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805033/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805035/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor
  • public
  • communication
  • flowers
  • trees
  • maidens
  • offices

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/18805037/

  • Designed by Eugène Samuel Grasset
  • chromotypograph
  • Gift of Unknown Donor
  • graphic design
  • flowers
  • women
  • snow
  • graphic designers
  • calendars
  • December

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/35460973/

  • Designed by Alphonse Maria Mucha
  • brush and watercolor, graphite on cream wove paper
  • floral
  • organic
  • sketch
  • art nouveau
  • watercolor
  • feminine

When writing to his wife in 1910 about his ideal family home in Bohemia, Alphonse Maria Mucha made his desires for living near nature clear: “You know my conditions . . . woods nearby, the town nearby, a garden as big as possible—so that I can build a studio there.” Mucha prioritized access to natural resources in order to attain a good quality of life and work. His textile designs celebrate the spontaneous freeform curves of flowers and plants.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/51685081/

  • mold-blown, etched and carved glass, enamel fusions
  • Gift of Harry C. Sigman
  • green
  • landscape
  • display
  • vases
  • decorative
  • art nouveau
  • layers

Daum produced layered glass similar to that of Emile Gallé’s, and gradually perfected several original and difficult techniques, such as using colored glass powder, wheel cutting, martelage (producing a hammered texture), mold-blowing, and acid etching. These techniques resulted in stunning decorative effects when combined on a single piece of glass

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/51685095/

  • Designed by Emile Gallé
  • Manufactured by Etablissement Gallé
  • various woods
  • Gift of Harry C. Sigman
  • furniture
  • flowers
  • floral
  • collapsible
  • domestic interiors
  • foliage
  • decorative
  • writing
  • desks
  • carved
  • folded
  • marquetry
  • finials

This folding desk and the side chair nearby are examples of French art nouveau furniture sold to American shoppers at Chicago’s department store Marshall Field & Co. Gallé opened a small woodworking shop in 1884–85 where these pieces were created. The desk showcases Gallé’s inlay work and passion for nature, while also highlighting the piece’s utility, shown by two small folddown shelves to support inkwell and pens.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/51685193/

  • Manufactured by Rozenburg Pottery and Porcelain Factory
  • porcelain, vitreous enamel
  • ceramics
  • flowers
  • coffee/tea drinking
  • drinking
  • cup

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/68775875/

  • handmade paper printed in red and black
  • Gift of Calvin S. Hathaway, Smithsonian Libraries, PR5079 .W6 1894X
  • wood
  • book
  • Arts and Crafts

Written toward the end of Morris’s life, The Wood Beyond the World is a fantasy novel closely informed by medieval romances. The historical English identities and characters that Morris sought to revive were connected closely to the woods and, in particular, to oak trees. Here, oak leaves form a border around both the text and Edward Burne-Jones’s figure of a young woman bedecked in floral garlands

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/68777085/

  • glass
  • Bequest of Joseph L. Morris
  • container
  • vases
  • vessels
  • art nouveau
  • biomorphic
  • forms

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/68813709/

  • steamed, bent sawn oak slats, nailed to bent hickory wood bark-covered branches
  • trees
  • organic
  • wood
  • bent
  • brown
  • natural

Furniture made from abundant local hickory has been a strong Amish tradition in Indiana since the 19th century. This graceful form was achieved by bending and nailing long, straight, fresh branches around a frame. Through the use of local materials, the rustic style of this chair links it to the landscape, lessening the boundary between indoors and outdoors.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/102200443/

  • Designed by William Morris
  • Manufactured by Jeffrey & Company
  • block-printed paper
  • Museum purchase from Smithsonian Regents Collections Acquisition Fund

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/102200447/

  • Manufactured by Jeffrey & Company
  • block-printed paper
  • Museum purchase from Smithsonian Regents Collections Acquisition Fund

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/420577681/

  • favrile glass, etched bronze
  • Gift of Mrs. Eric Larrabee
  • decorative
  • writing
  • Favrile
  • grapevine

Tiffany produced objects that married decorative appeal and utility, such as this desk set individually created in small batches from sheets of etched metal and pre-cut favrile glass. The Grapevine pattern became one of Tiffany’s most recognizable motifs; the trellis, fruit, and curling vines have a flattened aesthetic reminiscent of Japanese stencil designs.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/1108711681/

  • Manufactured by L. & G. Cramer
  • cotton
  • American Textile History Museum Collection, gift of Helena Wright

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/1108711691/

  • cotton
  • American Textile History Museum Collection
  • World's Fair
  • souvenirs

This commemorative handkerchief for the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876 features the Horticultural Hall, designed as a tribute to Joseph Paxton’s building for the Great Exhibition in London in 1851. Popular exhibits at The Horticultural Hall included ornamental trees, shrubs, flowers, hot houses, conservancies, garden tools, and garden design, construction, and maintenance. The orange and lemon trees bearing fruit attracted particular interest.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318793594/

  • Manufactured by Sir Joseph Paxton
  • printed paper
  • Smithsonian Libraries, The Joseph F. Cullman 3rd Library of Natural History

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318794103/

  • linen
  • Gift of Suzanne McIntire
  • domestic
  • trees
  • delicate
  • art nouveau

The composition of this napkin celebrates the natural resource of water, giving life to the grass and trees through their roots and to the fish swimming around this textile’s border. The Tree of Life was a common motif in the visual language of art nouveau, popular for its symbolism of strength, rebirth, and beauty. This textile depicts nature as an active and connected ecosystem, with trees and plants central to the story.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318797122/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Gift of Robert Winthrop Chanler, Smithsonian Libraries, NK1560 .V47 1904
  • decoration
  • floral
  • nature
  • book
  • observation
  • print

The Encyclopédie Artistique et Documentaire de la Plante was one of the most ambitious publications produced in the late 19th century to provide designers with studies of plants. Relying on the talents of a dozen contributors, it provided a comprehensive overview of 100 species of plants through photographs, artistic sketches, and botanical drawings. Its plates were intended to highlight both the formal properties of each plant and the principles controlling its growth and structure.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798060/

  • Smithsonian Libraries, NK1175 .J78 1856
  • decoration
  • ornament
  • floral
  • book
  • observation
  • print

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798062/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Gift of Robert Winthrop Chanler, Smithsonian Libraries, NK1560 .G76 1896
  • decoration
  • ornament
  • floral
  • book
  • print

Edited by French designer and educator Eugène Grasset, this book features patterns conceived by his design students. Aimed at furniture makers and manufacturers of decorative objects, it promotes the use of stylized natural imagery in design as an alternative to copying historical patterns. Grasset links the proposed designs directly back to nature with the inclusion of botanical studies, a feature of many French pattern books from the period. Here the botanical study at left is an inspiration for the design drawing at right

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798064/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Sarah and Eleanor Hewitt, former owners, Smithsonian Libraries, N6537 .T5A78 1914
  • outdoors
  • garden design
  • book
  • garden
  • fountain

In addition to his work as a glass artist, Louis C. Tiffany was also an architect, who designed both landscapes and interiors. In 1902, Tiffany began construction of a large house and country estate called Laurelton Hall near Oyster Bay, Long Island, which features prominently in the pages of this biography. The Laurelton Hall complex was a complete aesthetic environment that encouraged a close relationship with nature, both outside, with loggias giving view to 60 acres of carefully planned gardens, and inside, with hanging potted plants and fountains throughout the rooms

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798066/

  • lithograph on paper with hand-colored plates
  • Gift of Leopold Eidlitz, Smithsonian Libraries, NK1565 .P8X 1849
  • decoration
  • ornament
  • floral
  • book
  • print
  • ornament print

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798068/

  • hand-colored or color-printed and hand-finished, etched and engraved plates
  • botanical
  • education
  • book
  • manual
  • garden

The Chelsea Porcelain Manufactory, established in London in 1745, was a short walk from the Chelsea Physic Garden, where the firm’s painters had access to an abundance of plants for in-person study. This book Figures of the Most Beautiful… contains drawings of more than 300 specimens of plants from the Chelsea Physic Garden, which were referenced for the decoration on these ten plates. While fashionable in subject matter and style, flowers, insects, and leaves also played a practical role to disguise flaws and imperfections in the plates’ delicate porcelain and glaze

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798070/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Smithsonian Libraries, NK1535 .D77 1876
  • ornament
  • floral
  • symmetry
  • book
  • print
  • geometry

Studies in Design aimed to “help the decorator” and the “manufacturer of decorated objects” judge the “merit of ornament around them.” Dresser promoted the practice of drawing to understand the symbolism of ornament and its visual impact. The text encourages students to undertake in-person study of flowers, including the lotus, a form that Dresser advises could “give knowledge of historic ornament.” Dresser also pointed students toward the water-tanks at Kew Gardens and Crystal Palace, Syndenham for observation

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798072/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Smithsonian Libraries, NK1560 .L3X 1912
  • decoration
  • ornament
  • science
  • education
  • book
  • print

Maud Lawrence and Caroline Sheldon, the authors of The Use of the Plant in Decorative Design, were art teachers based in the Midwest region of the United States. Their book was written for grade school and high school students, providing exercises in creating patterns from nature studies with simple stencils.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798073/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Gift of Elizabeth d’Hauteville Kean, Smithsonian Libraries, NX650.F57 C89f 1902
  • floral
  • fantasy
  • satire
  • book
  • print

One of Crane’s most well-received books, Flora’s Feast tells the story of goddess Flora waking all the flowers in a garden for their blooming, to form a great ceremonial spring procession. It was the first of a series of books by Crane that featured flowers imitating human activities. The designer’s playful depiction of nature contrasted with the highly technical language of illustrations for the period’s scientific texts on botany but nurtured the same enthusiasm for the natural world

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798075/

  • lithography on paper
  • Smithsonian Libraries, QK1 .P342
  • botanical
  • science
  • education
  • observation
  • garden

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798701/

  • Smithsonian Libraries, NC248 .G7F6 1847
  • floral
  • fantasy
  • satire
  • book
  • fantastical creatures

It is believed that Emile Gallé used Les Fleurs Animées to learn how to read. Along with Gallé, renowned illustrator and cartoonist J. J. Grandville was born in Nancy, but he later established himself in Paris. In these two volumes, Grandville draws fashionable French ladies as beautiful, wilting wildflowers or threatening poisonous herbs

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798703/

  • Smithsonian Libraries, NC248 .G7F6 1847
  • floral
  • fantasy
  • satire
  • book
  • fantastical creatures

It is believed that Emile Gallé used Les Fleurs Animées to learn how to read. Along with Gallé, renowned illustrator and cartoonist J. J. Grandville was born in Nancy, but he later established himself in Paris. In these two volumes, Grandville draws fashionable French ladies as beautiful, wilting wildflowers or threatening poisonous herbs

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798705/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Gift of Elizabeth d’Hauteville Kean, Smithsonian Libraries, NX650 .F57 C89 1899
  • floral
  • fantasy
  • book
  • garden

Crane often united natural motifs with medieval or folk imagery. Whether in his children’s books or in his graphics for the socialist movement, these pastoral, pseudo-historic scenes presented a vision of a utopian society. In A Floral Fantasy, an angel wearing a Phrygian cap—a symbol of revolution—leads the author through a garden in which humanized flowers live in an idealized, medieval society.

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798707/

  • lithograph on paper
  • Smithsonian Libraries, NK1510 .C89
  • ornament
  • book
  • manual
  • Arts and Crafts

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318798818/

  • Designed by Josef Frank
  • mahogany (base and cabinet), birch (interior shelves), lithography on paper
  • Private Collection, San Francisco
  • botanical
  • floral
  • print

This object is currently on display in room 206 in Carnegie Mansion.

Botanical Expressions

https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/objects/2318803286/

  • cotton, silk
  • Gift of Andrew Van Styn from the estate of Don Magner