This image is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions), and as such we offer a high-resolution image of it. See our image rights statement.


See more objects with the color grey darkolivegreen black darkslategrey or see all the colors for this object.

Object Timeline


  • We acquired this object.




  • You found it!

Chandelier (probably Sweden)

This is a Chandelier. It is dated ca. 1795 and we acquired it in 2009. Its medium is glass, gilt metal. It is a part of the Product Design and Decorative Arts department.

Chandeliers have been a major form of lighting design for hundreds of years. The practice of dining at an hour that required candlelight was an early sign of high social status due to the cost of candles. As the glass industry expanded during the 17th century in Europe, glass became widely sought-after for chandeliers—either replacing or used in conjunction with rock crystal drops. The multiple reflective surfaces of faceted glass drops, like their rock crystal predecessors, increased the amount of light given off by the candles and created an effect of dancing light.
In the 18th century, the Swedish and Russian glass industries were producing top quality glass, thanks to techniques including the addition of lead to glass to simulate rock crystal’s prismatic effect and the production of plate glass, a late 17th-century French invention, to which color was sometimes added in Swedish and Russian manufacturers. The combined use of plate and hand-blown glass with garlands of lead glass “crystals” produced the crisp lines of the neoclassical designs created in Northern Europe in the 1780s. The success of these designs, both domestically and abroad, led to the rise of Swedish and Russian factories over the previously dominant Venetian manufacturers. From the 1780s to 1820, colored glass, often blue, was used in combination with clear drops and gilt metal and ormolu supports. The overall quality of the designs and glass were high and were coveted throughout Europe.
In order to keep the neoclassical chandeliers as light as possible for both aesthetic and practical reasons, lead glass was used in place of rock crystal and thin gilt metal was preferred to heavier gilt bronze—as is the case for this chandelier. Glass was less expensive and more readily available than rock crystal, and thin sheets of gilt metal were also less costly than gilt bronze. The lower costs helped chandeliers become an affordable option for prosperous merchants in addition to the aristocracy.
This would be the first example of late 18th-century chandelier design in the museum’s collection. The chandelier relates to very similar examples depicted in European interior watercolors found in the museum’s collection, and also serves as a point of comparison to the late 18th-century and early 19th-century French ormolu candlesticks and candelabra held in the collection.

This object was featured in our Object of the Week series in a post titled The Neoclassical North .

This object was bequest of Joseph F. McCrindle. It is credited Bequest of Joseph F. McCrindle.

  • Porca Miseria! Hanging Lamp
  • glazed molded porcelain adhered to metal, stainless steel; halogen light source.
  • Gift of Peter Norton.
  • 2010-16-1
  • Brooch, 2008
  • polymethylacrylate, found black glass, printing ink, onyx beads, silver leaf,....
  • The Susan Grant Lewin Collection, Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum.
  • 2016-34-124

Its dimensions are

H x diam.: 90 x 65 cm (35 7/16 x 25 9/16 in.)

Cite this object as

Chandelier (probably Sweden); glass, gilt metal; H x diam.: 90 x 65 cm (35 7/16 x 25 9/16 in.); Bequest of Joseph F. McCrindle; 2009-4-4

This image is in the public domain (free of copyright restrictions). You can copy, modify, and distribute this work without contacting the Smithsonian. For more information, visit the Smithsonian’s Terms of Use page.

If you would like to cite this object in a Wikipedia article please use the following template:

<ref name=CH>{{cite web |url= |title=Chandelier (probably Sweden) |author=Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum |accessdate=4 October 2022 |publisher=Smithsonian Institution}}</ref>