Rank Badge (buzi) (China), Ming dynasty 1368–1644
Medium: silk, gilded paper Technique: plain weave with discontinuous wefts (tapestry) Label: Silk and metallic tapestry (k'ossu). Gift of John Pierpont Morgan. 1902-1-433.
What is this?
Most of a Ming dynasty First Rank square showing a pair of cranes with spread wings arched across a gold sky filled with brightly colored attenuated cloud streamers. Birds are white with gray and black lower wing feathers and throats, vermillion crests, and beak, feet and eye details in black and pale green. Cloud bands are white with shades of blue, pale green, yellow and vermillion on a gold metallic ground.
Why is this important?
This rare Ming dynasty rank badge would have been worn by a first rank civil official, woven into or appliquéd to a long, full-skirted red robe accompanied by a gem-inset hoop belt and black gauze winged hat. Square badges with birds or animals can be found in Yuan period (1271-1368) court clothing, but it was not until the Ming dress regulations of 1391 that animals and birds were systematically corresponded to civil and military ranks, and the term “rank badge” (bu zi) appeared. The rank badge system proved both enduring and influential. It continued through the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) and into the early Republic of China, and was adopted by neighboring vassal countries like Korea and Annam (central Vietnam). This elegant example shows a pair of white cranes circling each other in flight, set against the clouds rippling in broad bands of warm colors. In Chinese culture, the crane is a symbol of longevity, and is often seen in Daoist imagery transporting immortals to mystical islands. Flying cranes came to allude to a rise in rank, in this case indicating a first-rank official.
This object has been included in the following exhibitions: